The Most Common Gum and Teeth Problems in Older Adults

As we age, our bodies go through various changes, and our oral health is no exception. Gum and teeth problems are increasingly common in older adults, and if left untreated, they can lead to severe oral health issues. Understanding these issues can help seniors avoid neglecting their oral health and maintain their overall well-being. We’ll explore some of the most common gum and teeth problems that affect older adults and how to handle them.


Gingivitis is a gum disease that affects people of all ages, but it is particularly prevalent in older adults. It is characterized by gum inflammation, which can eventually cause tenderness, swelling, and bleeding. Gingivitis is typically caused by poor oral hygiene, which allows plaque to build up on the teeth and gum line.

Other factors can also contribute to the development of gingivitis—such as smoking, alcohol, and certain medications. If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to more severe forms of gum disease, which can result in tooth loss and other serious oral health problems. With proper oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups, gingivitis can be prevented effectively.

Dry mouth

A dry mouth is a dental health issue that occurs when the salivary glands do not generate enough saliva to keep the mouth moist. This condition is more common in older adults due to aging and the use of certain medications. A dry mouth can lead to a range of mouth problems, such as tooth decay, gum disease, and bad breath. It can make it difficult to speak, swallow, and taste food properly, impacting a person’s overall quality of life.

To manage dry mouth issues, it’s important to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water and avoiding alcohol and caffeine, which can exacerbate the condition. Chewing sugarless gum or sucking on sugarless candy can help stimulate saliva production, as can using a humidifier at night. In some cases, a dentist may recommend a prescription or over-the-counter saliva substitute to provide relief.


Cavities are caused by bacteria in the mouth that produce acidic byproducts, which break down the enamel of the tooth, leading to decay. As the decay progresses, a hole or cavity forms in the tooth, which can cause pain, sensitivity, and infection if left untreated. Cavities can occur in any part of the tooth, including the roots, which can be particularly problematic for older adults who are more likely to experience gum recession and other dental issues.

Preventing cavities involves maintaining good dental health. Brushing and flossing regularly and visiting the dentist for check-ups and cleanings are an absolute must. It’s also important to limit sugary and acidic foods and drinks that can contribute to the formation of cavities. If a cavity does develop, prompt treatment is essential to prevent further damage to the tooth and surrounding tissues. Treatment options for cavities may include fillings, crowns, root canal therapy, or even extraction in severe cases.

Receding gums

Receding gums, also known as gingival recession, happen when the gums inch away from the teeth. This exposes the roots of the teeth and creates the potential for damage. This condition can be caused by numerous factors, some of which include poor oral hygiene and aggressive brushing. Receding gums can be particularly damaging for older adults, as they are more prone to gum disease and other oral health issues. Common symptoms of receding gums include tooth sensitivity, loose teeth, and visible root surfaces.

Preventing and treating receding gums involves maintaining good oral hygiene practices. They include brushing and flossing regularly and using a soft-bristled toothbrush to avoid damaging the gums. It’s also important to seek treatment for any underlying conditions, such as gum disease or hormonal imbalances, that may be contributing to the problem. Depending on the severity of the condition, treatment options may include scaling and root planing, gum graft surgery, or other procedures to repair the gum tissue.

Oral cancer

Oral cancer is a serious and potentially life-threatening problem that can affect various parts of the mouth, including the lips, tongue, cheeks, and throat. It is frequent in older adults, particularly those who use tobacco or alcohol or have poor oral hygiene. A family history of the disease can also be indicative. Oral cancer can manifest in a variety of ways, such as sores or lumps that don’t heal, difficulty swallowing, and persistent pain or discomfort. The colour and texture of oral tissues can be changed as well.

Early detection is crucial for effective treatment, as advanced cases can be more challenging to treat and may require extensive surgery or radiation therapy. Regular dental check-ups are also essential for detecting any signs of oral cancer early on. If oral cancer is suspected, a biopsy or other diagnostic tests may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these therapies. With early detection and proper treatment at a clinic like Forum Dentistry, the prognosis for oral cancer can be positive, highlighting the importance of regular oral cancer screenings.

Tooth & crown loss

Tooth and crown loss are pretty common oral health problems that occur in older adults. It may be caused by a variety of factors, including gum disease, decay, injury, or aging. Crown loss, on the other hand, typically occurs when a dental crown, which is a cap that covers a damaged or decayed tooth, becomes loose or falls off.

Tooth and crown loss can cause a range of problems, such as difficulty chewing and speaking, bone loss in the jaw, and changes in the alignment of the remaining teeth. Replacing lost teeth or crowns is essential for restoring function and maintaining oral health.


Maintaining good oral health is crucial for older adults to prevent and manage common gum and teeth problems. Regular dental check-ups and cleanings, along with adopting healthy lifestyle habits, can help prevent the oral health issues we’ve mentioned. Early detection and prompt treatment are key to managing these conditions effectively and maintaining optimal oral health in older adults. By taking a proactive approach to oral care and seeking professional guidance and treatment, when necessary, older adults can continue to enjoy healthy, functional teeth and gums.