Understanding Common Gastric Issues: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment of Gastric Issues

People of all ages and lifestyles are affected by gastric problems, which are becoming more prevalent in today’s fast-paced society. These digestive issues, which can range from minor discomfort to chronic illnesses like gastritis and ulcers, can have a substantial influence on a person’s quality of life. Weakness, pain, and disruption of our daily life can result from these disorders. For common gastrointestinal problems to be effectively managed and the discomfort they cause to be relieved, it is important to understand their causes, symptoms, and available treatments. 

In this blog post, we’ll look at the many gastrointestinal issues people frequently experience and offer insightful information about their root causes, recognizable symptoms, and possible treatment options. You can actively work toward achieving greater digestive health and general well-being by developing a deeper understanding of these problems.

Gastric Issues: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Gastric issues refer to a variety of conditions affecting the stomach and its functioning. Here are some common gastric issues, along with their causes, symptoms, and treatment options:

1. Acid Reflux

Cause

Acid reflux, also called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is a problem that happens when acid from the stomach flows back up into the esophagus. It is mostly caused by a weak lower esophageal sphincter (LES), which is the muscle that usually stops stomach acid from going back up into the esophagus. Acid reflux can be caused by a number of different things. A hiatal hernia is a typical reason for acid reflux. 

Symptoms

Acid reflux can cause a wide range of symptoms, from mild to very bad. Heartburn, which feels like a burning feeling in the chest or throat, is the most common sign. This pain may get worse after you eat, lie down, or bend over. Another common sign is regurgitation, which is when acid and food that haven’t been broken down come back up into the mouth. A sour taste in the mouth, trouble swallowing, a chronic cough, hoarseness, and chest pain that can feel like a heart attack are some of the other signs.

Treatment

Changing your lifestyle is a key part of dealing with acid reflux. One of these is to keep a healthy weight since extra weight can put pressure on the belly and make reflux more likely. It’s also important to stay away from things like fatty and fried foods, spicy foods, citrus fruits, chocolate, coffee, and booze. Symptoms can be lessened by eating smaller meals more often and not lying down or bending over right after eating. Putting the head of the bed about 6 to 8 inches off the ground can also help stop reflux while you sleep.

2. Gastritis

Causes 

Gastritis is an inflammation of the walls of the stomach, which can be caused by a number of things. Most cases of gastritis are caused by an infection with the bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which weakens the stomach’s protective mucus layer and makes it inflamed. Other reasons include drinking too much alcohol, taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin or ibuprofen for a long time, being stressed, having an autoimmune disease, or having a certain medical condition. 

Symptoms 

The signs of gastritis can be different, but they usually include pain or discomfort in the abdomen, feeling full or bloated after eating, nausea or vomiting, indigestion, loss of appetite, and in some cases, blood in the vomit or stools. When gastritis gets bad, it can cause problems like bleeding or sores in the stomach. If you have symptoms that don’t go away or are getting worse, you should see a doctor to get a correct evaluation and the right treatment.

Treatment

Gastritis treatment depends on the cause and severity of the condition. Lifestyle adjustments and drugs help manage gastritis in many situations. Antibiotics and acid-reducing medications are usually given to treat H. pylori-caused gastritis. PPIs or H2 blockers reduce stomach acid production and repair the stomach lining. To prevent stomach irritation, avoid alcohol, spicy foods, and NSAIDs. 

3. Peptic Ulcers

Causes

Peptic ulcers are open sores that can appear on the outer layer of the stomach, upper small intestine, or esophagus. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a type of bacteria, is the main cause of gastric ulcers. This bacteria weakens the mucus layer that protects the stomach and duodenum. This increases the likelihood that stomach acid will harm the lining of the stomach and duodenum. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin or ibuprofen can also cause peptic ulcers because they irritate the stomach walls and make the stomach less able to make protective mucus. 

Symptoms

Peptic ulcers can cause a wide range of symptoms, but most people feel a burning or gnawing pain in the upper belly, usually between meals or at night. The pain might go away briefly if you eat or take antacids. Other signs of bleeding include sickness, vomiting, feeling full, losing weight without trying to, and having stools that are black or tarry. 

Treatment

When treating peptic ulcers, the goal is to relieve symptoms, help the body heal, and avoid problems. The main treatment is a mix of drugs and changes to how people live. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or H2 blockers to lower stomach acid production are all possible treatments for an H. pylori infection. The best thing is doctors can easily treat Peptic ulcers using medicines that coat and protect the stomach lining, treatments that hasten to heal, and both.

4. Gallstones

Causes

The imbalance of the chemicals in bile, a fluid produced by the liver to aid in digestion, is one of the primary causes of gallstones in humans. When there is too much cholesterol or bilirubin in the bile, it can cause gallstones to form. Other things that can cause gallstones are a family history of them, being overweight, losing weight quickly, eating a lot of fat, and having diabetes or liver cancer.

Symptoms

Gallstones can cause a wide range of symptoms, but some people may not have any for a long time. When signs do show up, they usually take the form of biliary colic, which is a severe pain in the upper abdomen. This pain usually happens after a big or fatty meal. It can spread to the back or shoulder. The pain may be accompanied by nausea, throwing up, and feeling full. 

Treatment

Treatment for gallstones usually depends on how bad the symptoms are and if there are any other problems. When gallstones do not cause pain or just cause minor discomfort, doctors use a “wait and see” approach because many gallstones do not require immediate treatment. But if you have signs like severe pain, jaundice, or inflammation, you need to see a doctor. The surgical removal of the gallbladder, known as a cholecystectomy, is a common procedure for treating gallstones that cause symptoms.

5. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Causes

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a condition that affects the intestines. One cause is when the muscles in the intestines contract in a way that isn’t normal. This can make food move too quickly or too slowly through the digestive system. This can cause changes in bowel habits, which can lead to signs like diarrhea, constipation, or a mix of the two. The intestines may also be more sensitive to certain triggers, such as worry, certain foods, changes in hormones, or infections.

Symptoms

Psychological factors, such as stress, anxiety, or a background of trauma, can also cause or worsen symptoms. IBS frequently results in bloating, excessive gas, variations in bowel motions, and the sensation that bowel movements aren’t complete. These symptoms can vary in how bad they are and how long they last. They often change over time. It is important to know that IBS is a long-term condition that needs long-term treatment to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.

Treatment

Doctors treat Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) with the goal of relieving symptoms and improving the general quality of life for those who have it. Since no one knows for sure what causes IBS, treatment works on managing symptoms instead of finding a cure. Lifestyle changes are often the first step, and they might include things like avoiding trigger foods like fatty or hot foods, eating more fiber, and drinking a lot of water. People also suggest learning how to reduce stress, working out regularly, and getting enough sleep to help manage symptoms. 

In a Nutshell

Having a comprehensive understanding of common gastric issues, their causes, symptoms, and treatment options is crucial for maintaining optimal digestive health. However, when faced with such concerns, seeking professional advice from a doctor can greatly enhance one’s approach to diagnosis and treatment. By consulting Dr. Preetha, a gastroenterologist in Pretoria, you can receive expert guidance, tailored treatments, and ongoing support to alleviate symptoms, address underlying causes, and improve overall gastrointestinal well-being. Therefore, turning to a gastroenterologist for professional advice is a valuable step toward achieving optimal digestive health.